Four companies announced nuclear plant closures in 2013—representing the first shutdowns in 15 years, and an unprecedented single-year retrenchment for the U.S. nuclear industry. "Renaissance in Reverse," a July 2013 report by Mark Cooper, highlighted at least ten nuclear plants that could be forced to close earlier than planned. Cooper, a senior fellow at the Vermont Law School's Institute for Energy and the Environment, drew his conclusions in part from reports by Wall Street analysts. Cooper stopped short of predicting specific plant closures, but he noted that about ten are at greater risk for closure because of low power prices, rising costs and other woes.

(Read: First U.S. Nuclear Power Closures in 15 Years Signal Wider Problems for Industry)

Image: San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Units 2 and 3/Credit: Southern California Edison

A map of closed or closing nuclear power plants (shown in red), as well as plants especially vulnerable to future closures (shown in orange) in the United States, according to experts.

(Click to enlarge map)

Credit: Paul Horn for InsideClimate News

Clinton Power Station
Clinton, Ill.

Status: At risk
Problems: Small, selling into tough market
Reactors: 1
Generating capacity (MW):1,078
License expiration: 2026
License issued: 1987
Company: Exelon Corp.

Image: Clinton Power Station, Unit 1/Credit: Exelon Nuclear

Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant
Crystal River, Fla.

Status: Shut down, closure announced Feb. 2013
Problems: Engineering issues
Reactors: 1 (Unit 3)
Generating capacity: 838
License expiration: 2016
License issued: 1976
Company: Duke Energy Corp.

Image: Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3/Credit: Progress Energy

Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station
Oak Harbor, OH

Status: At risk
Problems: Needs license renewal and new steam generators, history of operating problems, cracks in reactor shield structure
Reactors: 1
Generating capacity (MW): 900
License expiration: 2017
License issued:1977
Company: FirstEnergy Corp.

Image: Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1/Credit: First Energy Nuclear Operating Co

Fort Calhoun Station
Fort Calhoun, Neb.

Status: At risk, shut down since April 2011
Problems: Long term outage, operational violations, safety and reliability issues
Reactors: 1
Generating capacity (MW): 482
License expiration: 2033
License issued: 1973
Company: Omaha Public Power District

Image: Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1/Credit: OPPD

Indian Point Nuclear Generating Station
Buchanon, NY

Status: At risk, Unit 2 will be operating under a special provision pending license renewal
Problems: Needs license extension, has local opposition
Reactors: 2 (Unit 2 & Unit 3)
Generating capacity (MW): 1,028 & 1,041
License expiration: 2013 & 2015
License issued: 1973 & 1975
Company: Entergy Corp.

Image: Indian Point Nuclear Generating, Units 2 and 3/Credit: Entergy Nuclear

James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant
Scriba, NY

Status: At risk
Problems: High cost, no power purchase contracts, operational issues
Reactors: 1
Generating capacity (MW): 838
License expiration: 2034
License issued: 1974
Company: Entergy Nuclear Operations Inc.

Image: James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant/Credit: Entergy Nuclear

Kewaunee Power Station
Carlton, Wisc.

Status: Shut down May 2013. Closure announced Oct. 2012.
Problems: Not economic, no buyer found
Reactors: 1
Generating capacity: 556
License expiration: 2033
License issued: 1973
Company: Dominion Resources Inc.

Image: Kewaunee Power Station/Credit: Dominion Energy

Millstone Power Station
Waterford, Conn.

Status: At risk
Problems: Water coolant issues, might need cooling towers
Reactors: 2 (Unit 2 & Unit 3)
Generating capacity (MW): 884 & 1,227
License expiration: 2035 & 2045
License issued: 1975 & 1986
Company: Dominion Resources Inc.

Image: Millstone Power Station, Units 2 and 3/Credit: Dominion Energy

Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station
Scriba, NY

Status: At risk
Problems: Unit 1 is old, small, high costs, operational issues
Reactors: 2 (Unit 1 & Unit 2)
Generating capacity (MW): 628 & 1,362
License expirations: 2029 & 2046
License issued: 1969 (full 1974) & 1987
Company: Constellation Energy Nuclear Group

Credit: Exelon Corp.

Palisades Power Plant
Covert, Mich.

Status: At risk
Problems: Safety & reliability problems, local opposition
Reactors: 1 (Unit 3)
Generating capacity (MW): 798
License expiration: 2031
License issued: 1971 (full term license 1991)
Company: Entergy Corp.

Image: Palisades Nuclear Plant/Credit: Entergy Nuclear

Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station
Plymouth, Mass.

Status: At risk
Problems: Small, selling into tough market
Reactors: 1
Generating capacity (MW): 688
License expiration: 2032
License issued: 1972
Company: Entergy Corp.

Image: Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station/Credit: Entergy Nuclear

R. E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant
Ontario, NY

Status: At risk
Problems: Small, tough economics
Reactors: 1
Generating capacity (MW): 581
License expiration: 2029
License issued: 1969
Company: Constellation Energy Nuclear Group

Image: R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant/Credit: Entergy Nuclear

San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station
Southern California, near San Clemente

Status: Shut down. Closure announced June 2013.
Problems: Engineering errors, leak, costly repairs
Reactors: 2 (Unit 2 and Unit 3)
Generating capacity (MW): 1,070 and 1,080
License expiration: 2022
Licenses issued: 1982
Company: Southern California Edison

Credit: Rian Castillo, flickr

Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant
Vernon, Vt.

Status: Will shut down in late 2014. Closure plan announced Aug. 2013
Problems: Not economic, state opposition
Reactors: 1
Generating capacity: 620
License expiration: 2032
License issued: 1972
Company: Entergy Corp.

Image: Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1/Credit: Entergy Nuclear

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