BILLINGS, Mont.—Pipeline spills caused by flooding and riverbed erosion dumped 2.4 million gallons of crude oil and other hazardous liquids into U.S. waterways over the past two decades, according to a new report from federal regulators.

The Department of Transportation report to Congress was crafted in response to a 2011 spill into Montana’s Yellowstone River. The spill highlighted gaps in federal pipeline rules that require lines to be buried just 4 feet below riverbeds — scant cover that can quickly be scoured away by floodwaters.

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