A fast-spreading movement to persuade universities to rid their endowments of fossil fuel assets is now taking root in America's churches.
"With the civil rights movement, the youth led and the churches followed," said Fred Small, minister of the Unitarian Universalist First Parish Church in Cambridge, Mass. The church is one of dozens of congregations across the country exploring how to divest their portfolios of coal, oil and gas companies.
"If young people see divestment as a key issue in the climate fight, then it is important for us to get involved," Small said.
The furthest along is the 1.2 million-member United Church of Christ, which will hold a national vote in June to adopt a fossil fuel divestment measure. Since November, divestment campaigns have spread to 210 universities in the United States and Canada, and to the city of Seattle, the first municipality seeking to divest its $1.9 billion pension fund.
The campaign is organized by 350.org, a grassroots climate organization founded by author turned activist Bill McKibben. It is part of a larger effort to boost the moral case for action by drawing attention to what McKibben calls global warming's "terrifying new math." Based on peer-reviewed science, the numbers say energy firms must keep 80 percent of their carbon reserves in the ground to limit the global temperature rise to the critical 2-degrees Celsius mark.
In an interview, McKibben said involvement of faith communities is crucial for climate action to become a great American movement.
"It's hard to think of a significant social advance in which churches didn't play a powerful role," he said. "And since the very first page of the good book asks us to exercise careful dominion over the earth, environmental stewardship is a key tenet of many synagogues, mosques, and churches."
Climate activism is nothing new for some American religious communities.
When legislation to tackle global warming was being seriously debated in Congress a few years ago, Roman Catholic, evangelical, Jewish, Muslim and interfaith leaders, among others, were part of campaigns to pressure Washington to set greenhouse gas limits on moral grounds. "Every religion teaches us to honor creation and care for the poor and vulnerable," who will bear the brunt of climate impacts, Small of First Parish said. "Clearly there is a religious imperative for us to get involved."
But the defeat of federal climate legislation, the failure of leadership at the United Nations Climate Conference in Copenhagen, the struggling economy and the rise of global warming skepticism in U.S. politics dampened prospects for climate policy. As a result, vocal church campaigns seemed to die out.
"I wouldn't confuse a lack of noise with a lack of action," according to Ben Lowe, director of young adult ministries at the Evangelical Environmental Network, one of the oldest religious groups focused on environmental issues in the United States.
Lowe said churches have been more focused on educating members about climate issues in the past few years, building up a base of support. He said that while evangelical churches typically don't have endowments, he has been watching the divestment campaign with interest and expects church leaders across the country to grow more vocal as global warming resurfaces in political debate.
Among evangelical Christians, the largest single religious group in the United States, there are still sharp divisions over the need for climate policy. The National Association of Evangelicals (NAE), the country's biggest evangelical organization, doesn't have an official stance on climate action. Some evangelical-affiliated churches and political leaders maintain that Earth cannot be drastically affected by human activities.
The NAE told InsideClimate News it doesn't have a position on fossil fuel divestment.
First Vote in June
The United Church of Christ, a liberal Protestant denomination and the fifteenth-largest religious collective in the United States, has been at the forefront of faith-based climate efforts. In 2009, it passed a resolution asking its 5,600 churches to go carbon neutral by 2016. The church holds carbon fasts during Lent and often participates in climate protests, such as those against the proposed Keystone XL pipeline.
This year, the UCC will hold a vote at its annual national meeting in June on a resolution urging its churches to divest from the 200 largest fossil fuel companies. The resolution is being introduced by the Massachusetts branch of the UCC. The chapter is also looking into how its 386 statewide congregations can divest ahead of the national vote.